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How to compile a UTF-8 .sql file that contains Unicode characters

ToddBarryNov 10 2022

We have a UTF-8 file containing the code for a PL/SQL package, and the code contains some diacritical Unicode characters.
When compiling with SQLcl, the package compiles successfully but those characters get corrupted within the data dictionary (and the code throws an exception when run because the corruption makes the size of a variable too large).
How can this file compile correctly (no error, no corruption) with SQLcl?
Here's an example of the code in the .sql file:
CSF_A constant varchar2(6) := 'ÀÁÂÃÄÅ';

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Added on Nov 10 2022
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